“间接消耗战略”:20世纪80年代中国对苏联安全战略再考察
Indirect Attrition Strategy:A Re-examination of China’s Security Strategy against USSR in the 1980s

中苏交恶造就了中国的反苏战备政策。在改革开放初,由于苏联威胁难有定论,中国只得同时推进战备和经济建设。而苏联和越南的扩张刺激中国先后实施了外交公关和边界作战等措施,并形成了通过打击苏联的盟友来消耗苏联的"间接消耗战略"。强力对抗使中国的决策者意识到苏联威胁是有限的,于是调整了中国的安全战略,即以"间接消耗战略"破解苏联的战略包围,支持阿富汗抵抗力量,备战改为裁军。到1985年,中国决策者最终确认苏联威胁是有限的,并将安全判断上升到"和平与发展"的理论高度。苏联为摆脱沉重的负担而约束盟友,满足了中国的安全诉求。

The Sino-Soviet rupture in the 1960 scaused China’s anti-Soviet war preparation.In the beginning of the reform era,as China started to promote economic development,unclear analysis of the Soviet threat forced China to keep its active war preparation.As a response to Soviet and Vietnamese aggressive movements in the late 1970 s,China successively launched diplomatic lobbying and border warfare,which formed an indirect attrition strategy,i.e.wearing down the USSR by attacking its allies. Years of confrontation convinced Chinese leaders of the limits of the Soviet threat.China attempted to use the indirect attrition strategy to break the Soviet strategic envelopment,support resistance forces in Afghanistan,and start a process of disarmament.By 1985,Chinese leaders confirmed the USSR’s limited threat and recognized peace and development as the two issues of global significance.The Soviet Union also began to restrain its allies’conduct in order to reduce heavy military and economic burdens.

2018年国家社会科学基金青年项目“新中国周边安全战略与中美关系研究(1977—1989)”(项目编号:18CGJ032)的阶段性成果;

中国政治与外交; 中苏关系; 同盟牵连困境; 间接消耗; 安全战略;

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